Arbour Solutions Africa

Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer

Once settled in one area, volatiles from Fusarium euwallacea attract more beetles where create more tunnels the tree. The fungus and the beetle thrive in symbiotic  harmony. Not so the tree they infest.

Distribution in South africa 

Species Affected

An example of an infective tree and its location in Gauteng 

Treatment issues:

  • Spraying has no real effect
  • Most products are reaching the tree canopy in less than 50% and even less than 0.4% make contact with the target
  • Most are also light sensitive therefore the effect is modified by photodegradation
  • Exogenously applied mixtures of biosynthesis inhibitors and inhibition of the pathogen mimics certain aspects of pathogen infection.
  • It stimulates the ability of the plant to activate pathogenic related protein accumulation
  • This may protect the plant against infection via Systemic Acquired Resistance limiting the damage to the tree.
  • Targeting IV or endermology  gives less pollution, less reapplication and is targeting the phloem through the natural diffusion and osmosis
  • The potential for contamination  of the groundwater is lessened
  • Composting is already being touted as a part of the remedy it also removes any traces of the compounds due to soil flora after treatment


The Tree Survey mobile app allows you to report infestations. Each reported incident receives in-app feedback. You can just report the bug, or you can select a further action from either a City Parks official or a private service provider.

Apple Store

Google Play Store

University of California 

City of Joburg 

Cape Town invasives 

Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute 

South African Landscaping Institute